Consider watching the many presentation on Alzheimer's and Dementia Summit presented by Jonathan Landsman.
The diversity of the presentations represents the multifactorial nature of these neurodegenerative diseases.
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In my opinion, Judith Miklossy, M.D., Ph.D. is the top researcher and clinician in Alzheimer's. She is a friend and colleague. Her website is:
Her career started with a publication in 1993 titled, "Alzheimer's, A Spirochetosis"
The aetiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which affects a large proportion of the aged population is unknown and the treatment unresolved. The role of beta amyloid protein (beta A4), derived from a larger amyloid precursor protein (APP) in AD is the subject of intense research. Here I report observations that in 14 autopsy cases with histopathologically confirmed AD, spirochetes were found in blood and cerebrospinal fluid and, moreover, could be isolated from brain tissue. Thirteen age-matched control cases were without spirochetes. Reference strains of spirochetes and those isolated from brains of AD patients, showed positive immunoreaction with monoclonal antibody against the beta amyloid precursor protein. These observations suggest that spirochetes may be one of the causes of AD and that they may be the source of the beta amyloid deposited in the AD brain.
What is a spirochete, where are they found, and how are they treated?
Spirochete: spirochete, (order Spirochaetales), also spelled spirochaete, any of a group of spiral-shaped bacteria, some of which are serious pathogens for humans, causing diseases such as syphilis, yaws, Lyme disease, and relapsing fever. Examples of genera of spirochetes include Spirochaeta, Treponema, Borrelia, and Leptospira.
Where are they found: The major sources of spirochetes in people include tick bites (called vector transmission) and the oral cavity. Treponema Dentacola may be the most common source of spirochete in humans. IMHO, the Dentacola or other oral spirochetes are much more prevalent in human disease compared to Borrelia burgdorferi the spirochete from tick bites.
How are they treated: https://academic.oup.com/cid/article/30/1/237/322583
Note: Lyme neuroborreliosis is REMARKABLY similar to Alzheimer's and dementia.
Dotevall and Hagberg correctly point out that there has been some reluctance to use oral antibiotics in the treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis because of fear of inadequate CSF and/or CNS penetration [2, 3]. Doxycycline is preferred over conventional tetracycline for this purpose because of its lipid solubility characteristics [4–6], as stated by Dotevall and Hagberg.
Doxycycline is 5 times more lipid soluble than conventional tetracycline, which is an important determinant of permeability of the blood-brain barrier [7, 8]. Dotevall and Hagberg showed that most patients had highly elevated CSF protein levels, which is the best index of antibiotic permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Aside from emphasizing a shorter duration of therapy, these researchers stressed the use of high dosages of doxycycline (e.g., 400 mg/d) for treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis.
Dotevall and Hagberg did not use or comment on minocycline as an alternative to doxycycline. Minocycline is even more highly lipid soluble than doxycycline and has excellent CSF penetration making it potentially useful in treating Lyme neuroborreliosis [7–11]. Minocycline is 2 times more lipid soluble than doxycycline, thereby making it a potential alternative for treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis. I have treated several patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis with minocycline, and our results are comparable with those of Dotevall and Hagberg. Because minocycline is so highly lipid soluble, 100 mg orally q12h is comparable with 400-mg daily doses of doxycycline in terms of CNS concentrations which are also in excess of the MIC90 for B. burgdorferi.
Although serum levels of doxycycline and minocycline are comparable at any given dose, there are important differences in CSF and/or CNS concentrations (figure 1) . The high lipid solubility of minocycline may cause vestibular side effects in some patients. This side effect limits the administration of minocycline to 100 mg q12h rather than 200 mg q12h [7–9]. Because of this, doxycycline (400 mg daily) remains the preferred oral antibiotic for treatment of Lyme neuroborreliosis in most patients . For patients for whom treatment fails (those with persistent symptoms and/or active CNS disease), minocycline may be a therapeutic option.
Ratio of CSF: serum concentrations of doxycycline and minocycline after multiple 100-mg oral doses given twice daily
Conclusion: When treating brain or eye aliments - the most lipophilic tissue in our body, minocycline is the preferred medication.
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