Have you heard me say minerals are the MOST important nutrients of all and....
They are the hardest of all food constituents to absorb?
Also, I believe that hunger responses are much more due to your body's need for minerals (micronutrients) than calories. Just squeeze your love handles for proof that you really are NOT calorie deficient.
Mercola published an article today on minerals. I published a video titled, "The Genesis of Health," aka "What Minerals Do." Here are the links to both...
Chemistry and Biochemistry of minerals and enzymes:
Everything important for healthy longevity involves oxidation and reduction. It's our yin and yang of health - you cannot have one without the other.
Dr. Carter and I repeatedly emphasize that 4 mechanisms drive most disease. And the number one mechanism is all about repair and recovery. In order to repair and recover you need to build / rebuild tissue. From a chemistry perspective, you need to build chemical bonds - lots of them.
Building chemical bonds requires a lot of ENERGY. In the simple world of a chemistry lab, we use the proper "reagents" (raw materials), and we drive the reactions to make new molecules with heat and agitation. When we are clever, we find a catalyst that makes the reaction go faster and easier. It's all about lowering what is called the "activation energy."
Enzymes are the catalysts of our bodies.
How do enzymes work? A picture of an enzyme might help...
This enzyme - this big "glob" of protein - exists for 2 purposes:
Purpose 1: To bind a specific molecule or set of molecules. We call this stereochemistry - where the big molecule has a landing strip of a specific size and shape.
Purpose 2: To carry out a chemical reaction - an oxidation/reduction or "electron transfer" reaction.
You might be asking, why are they so many essential nutrients and minerals?
Answer: Each one has 2 important features:
Feature 1: Ionic radius. This is the cross-sectional size of the mineral and the charge on the mineral. For example, sodium ion (mineral) has a charge of 1+ while magnesium has a charge of 2+ and they are different in size.
Feature 2: Electrical potential: Each mineral has a different oxidation / reduction potential based on where they appear on the periodic chart.
If you want to see how WIDELY the "electrochemical potential" of minerals vary, go to this site on Wikipedia:
I know this sounds complicated - but Mendeleev figured this out in 1869.
(Side note: Significant great science occurred around that time: Pasteur, Bernard, Mendeleev, Koester.... amazing scientific period.)
What follows are articles about minerals. Some of them are a bit repetitive but each provides a little piece of information I feel is informative. Please consider reading to the bottom of this blog where one of the articles discusses how minerals help with detoxification. I talk about this in the "Genesis of Health" presentation that is linked above.
I do not reproduce the entire article, in all cases, but provide the link in case you want to read or watch more.
What Role Do Vitamins Play in Enzyme Activity?
Vitamins are essential compounds that must be acquired through the diet because the body can't synthesize them. One of the reasons vitamins are needed is because they play an indirect role in catalysis, in which enzymes speed up chemical reactions. However, most vitamins can't help enzymes on their own. In order to participate in catalytic reactions, most vitamins have to change into coenzymes that are small "co-pilot" molecules that pair up with enzymes. These coenzymes are extremely useful because they stay the same after catalysis, so they're recycled and reused multiple times.
Converting Vitamins to Coenzymes
Most vitamins have to be converted into coenzymes before they can pair up with enzymes. These changes add small functional groups like phosphates to the vitamin structure, or they involve reduction-oxidation, or redox, reactions where electrons are either added or removed. For example, Vitamin B2 has to grab and bind to a phosphate group, PO3-, to form the coenzyme FMN. Folate is a vitamin that goes through a redox reaction and reduces two of its bonds by gaining electrons and it gets four hydrogens to form the coenzyme THF.
Coenzyme Reaction Mechanisms
Coenzymes help enzymes by transferring electrons in redox reactions, or adding functional groups to substrates, which are converted into the final product by the enzyme. The functional groups that coenzymes add to the substrate are relatively small: the coenzyme PLP adds an amine group, -NH2, for example. Coenzymes also perform redox reactions. They either take electrons from the substrate or give electrons to it. These reactions are reversible and depend on the concentrations of both oxidized and reduced forms of the coenzyme. The more oxidized coenzymes are, the more reduction there will be, and vice versa.
Minerals and trace elements
This article gives a very good listing of food sources for each mineral.
Minerals are inorganic substances required by the body in small amounts for a variety of different functions.
Minerals are involved in the formation of bones and teeth; they are essential constituents of body fluids and tissues; they are components of enzyme systems and they are involved in normal nerve function.
The body requires different amounts of each mineral; people have different requirements, according to their age, sex, physiological state (e.g. pregnancy) and sometimes their state of health.
The Department of Health has published Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for minerals for different groups of healthy people.
Minerals: Critical Micronutrients
This one is quite comprehensive.
Minerals: Their Functions and Sources
This one provides a simple but useful chart.
10.4 Minerals Important for Metabolism and for Blood Function and Renewal
LEARNING OBJECTIVES (from the article)
List the primary function of each of the minerals involved in metabolism.
Summarize the roles of minerals important in blood function and renewal.
How Essential Minerals Protect Against Heavy Metals
How Essential Minerals and Toxic Metals Interact
One reason heavy metals are so toxic is they interrupt the absorption, metabolism, and use of essential minerals, such as calcium, iron, and zinc. This leads to a deficiency of the minerals, which cause health issues. There are several ways metals and minerals interact with one another that impact your susceptibility to toxic metals and increase your risk of experiencing negative health effects.
One place metals and minerals interact is at the site of absorption. For metals and essential minerals to be absorbed, they must bind with transporters in the small intestines. Many toxic metals use the same binders or transferors as essential metals. This means toxic metals can be taken up in place of essential minerals, leading to a deficiency. However, it also might mean that if you consume a high enough amount of minerals, it can decrease the toxicity of the metals because the minerals beat out the metals for the binding site. For example, studies have found that those consuming a calcium-poor diet absorb more lead than those who have a calcium-rich diet. Other examples include:
– Iron deficiency leads to an increase in lead absorption and cadmium absorption. – Iron and arsenic have an antagonistic relationship, meaning that iron competes with arsenic, so if you have sufficient iron, then it mitigates the toxicity of arsenic. – Calcium deficiency increases the intestinal absorption and body retention of lead.
Altered Metabolism and Transport
Many minerals and metals also use the same transport mechanism and undergo similar metabolic functions. As a result, they are competing with one another, which could lead to health issues if the toxic metals take the place of the essential minerals. The following are a few examples:
– Cadmium interferes with the metabolism of copper, zinc, and iron. It also decreases transport of calcium in intestines. – Zinc can help clear out heavy metals through increasing the synthesis of metallothionein (MT). However, toxic metals, especially cadmium, compete with copper and zinc for binding with MT. Cadmium can displace zinc because it has a higher affinity, which stimulates MT synthesis due to the levels of free zinc. – Selenium protects against mercury toxicity through playing a role during the metabolism of mercury. Mercuric selenide, a compound produced from mercury and selenium, is also biologically inert and insoluble in living organisms. – Heavy metals mimic the essential minerals and ultimately enter the cellular membrane using the same transport system. Once they have entered the cell, they have the ability to alter the nucleic structure and negatively affect DNA and RNA activity, potentially leading to changes on the genetic level that contribute to chronic disease.
Inverse Associations and Disease Risks
These interactions might lead to an increase in susceptibility to certain chronic illnesses beyond just toxicity from the metals. Some highlights of studies looking into the association of essential minerals, toxic metals, and chronic illness include:
– In a study looking into the lead exposure of children between 0 to 7 years old, the researchers found a negative relationship between lead levels in the blood and serum calcium and iron. Another study looking at children found an inverse association between selenium and iron levels and lead. The children with low iron status also had higher levels of cadmium, most likely due to easier absorption due to low iron.
– The essential metal deficiencies caused by heavy metals, especially zinc, might lead to hypertension. Zinc deficiency leads to inflamed, brittle, hard, and inflexible arteries, which leads to higher blood pressure. Selenium plays a role in the body’s antioxidant defense system, and a deficiency also could lead to cardiovascular disease, mainly due to the role of ROS. In one study, researchers found higher levels of cadmium and mercury in the blood, urine, and scalp hair samples and lower levels of zinc and selenium than in the controls who did not have hypertension. The ratios of the essential elements and toxic metals were also lower in hypertension patients compared to controls.
– In hair samples of participants with metabolic syndrome, there were higher levels of arsenic and lead than the control and lower levels of calcium, magnesium, and zinc. The metabolic syndrome group also had higher levels of potassium and sodium in their hair, but there was no difference in cadmium, aluminum, and mercury. There was a significant negative correlation between calcium, copper, and magnesium levels and insulin resistance, but there was a positive correlation with sodium and potassium. Selenium was positively correlated with fasting blood glucose, while calcium and magnesium were negatively correlated. Mineral deficiencies have a correlation to insulin resistance and metabolic disorder, especially magnesium, zinc, and calcium, most likely due to their role in carbohydrate metabolism.
– Children with autism spectrum disorder have higher levels of toxic metals and lower levels of certain essential minerals. One study found that when analyzing hair samples for 11 heavy metals, children with ASD had significantly higher levels than the control group. In general, they also had higher levels of essential minerals, including zinc, iron, sodium, magnesium, potassium, and sulfur. However, they had lower levels of copper and calcium.
– An inverse association of essential minerals and toxic metals is associated with liver cancer and cirrhosis. In one study, supplementing with selenium and zinc provided some support to the liver in patients with liver disease. The levels of selenium and zinc in the blood increased while the levels of arsenic and cadmium decreased after 60 days of supplementation. Those patients had twice the levels of arsenic and cadmium compared to controls.
How to Protect Yourself from Toxic Metals
Although heavy metals might be difficult to excrete, it is possible to reduce your load and mitigate the negative effects. There are two main ways to do so: decrease your current toxic load and fortify your mineral stores.
Decrease Your Toxic Load
We live in a toxic environment, so it’s important to do wha