AI detects eye disease and risk of Parkinson’s from retinal images
Scientists have developed an artificial intelligence (AI) tool capable of diagnosing and predicting the risk of developing multiple health conditions — from ocular diseases to heart failure to Parkinson’s disease — all on the basis of people’s retinal images.
AI tools have been trained to detect disease using retinal images before, but what makes the new tool — called RETFound — unique because it was developed using a method known as self-supervised learning. That means that the researchers did not have to analyze each of the 1.6 million retinal images used for training and label them as ‘normal’ or ‘not normal,’ for instance. Such procedures are time-consuming, expensive, and needed to develop most standard machine-learning models.
Instead, the scientists used a similar method to train large-language models such as ChatGPT. That AI tool harnesses myriad examples of human-generated text to learn how to predict the next word in a sentence from the context of the preceding words. In the same way, RETFound uses many retinal photos to learn how to predict what missing portions of images should look like.
2. A foundation model for generalizable disease detection from retinal images
Medical artificial intelligence (AI) offers great potential for recognizing signs of health conditions in retinal images and expediting the diagnosis of eye diseases and systemic disorders. However, the development of AI models requires substantial annotation and models are usually task-specific with limited generalizability to different clinical applications.
Here, we present RETFound, a foundation model for retinal images that learns generalizable representations from unlabelled retinal images and provides a basis for label-efficient model adaptation in several applications. Specifically, RETFound is trained on 1.6 million unlabelled retinal images by means of self-supervised learning and then adapted to disease detection tasks with explicit labels.
We show that adapted RETFound consistently outperforms several comparison models in the diagnosis and prognosis of sight-threatening eye diseases, as well as incident prediction of complex systemic disorders such as heart failure and myocardial infarction with fewer labelled data. RETFound provides a generalizable solution to improve model performance and alleviate the annotation workload of experts to enable broad clinical AI applications from retinal imaging.
Past blog on Regener-Eyes
Health Revival Partners, in cooperation with Dr. Aaron Lewis, O.D., now supplies Regener-Eyes® to people with various eye conditions.
The story of the development of Regener-Eyes®
Dr. Randall Harrell (MD) is the Founder, Chairman, and CEO of Regenerative Processing Plant, LLC. He has worked for over 30 years to become a pioneer and visionary in regenerative medicine, where his discoveries and patented platform technologies in the study of Type III human collagen, stem cells, and pericytes have led to many developments and therapies.
The result of his work is Regener-Eyes® (generic name “derived-Multiple Allogeneic
Proteins Paracrine Signaling [d-MAPPS]”), an ophthalmic solution that contains a large
many immunoregulatory factors that are capable of penetrating the ocular surface and efficiently attenuating the detrimental immune response in the eye, promoting the repair and regeneration of injured tissue.
Regener-Eyes® is known to reverse dry eye. However, due to its regenerative and anti-inflammatory attributes, it is the eye drop of choice for:
Cataracts (in combination with Can-C drops)
Macular Degeneration, and
This is a pioneering area of development. Although unproven in glaucoma and macular degeneration, it is worth trying for those suffering from these conditions.
To purchase either (or) Regener-Eyes®, go to:
If you are interested in this product but not ready to purchase, let us know so we can have an adequate supply on hand. Write to email@example.com
Here are some information links to the products and research:
Regener-Eyes website: https://www.regenereyes.com/our-products/
"Because it is an inflammatory and progressive condition, advanced dry eye disease patients may benefit from regenerative treatment. With Regener-Eyes, the repair process may be activated through the natural proteins included in this ophthalmic preparation:
Cytokines. Short-lived proteins are released by cells to regulate the function of other cells and serve as anti-inflammatory agents in the body.
Chemokines. Small, hormone-like secretions stimulate the movement of immune system cells toward specific body sites and signal the immune system for healing potential.
Growth factors. Proteins stimulate the growth of specific tissues by promoting cellular differentiation and cell division and may help to trigger the potential for cell regeneration.
Hyaluronic acid. A clear protein distributed throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues; provides the body with cushioning and lubrication."
TITLE: Mesenchymal stem cell derived-exosomes: a modern approach in translational medicine
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have captured great attention in regenerative medicine for over a few decades by virtue of their differentiation capacity, potent immunomodulatory properties, and their ability to be favorably cultured and manipulated. Recent investigations implied that the pleiotropic effects of MSCs is not associated to their ability of differentiation, but rather is mediated by the secretion of soluble paracrine factors.
Exosomes, nanoscale extracellular vesicles, are one of these paracrine mediators. Exosomes transfer functional cargos like:
miRNA and mRNA molecules,
cytokines and lipids from MSCs to the recipient cells.
Exosomes participate in intercellular communication events and contribute to the healing of injured or diseased tissues and organs.
Studies reported that exosomes alone are responsible for the therapeutic effects of MSCs in numerous experimental models.
Therefore, MSC-derived exosomes can be manipulated and applied to establish a novel cell-free therapeutic approach for treatment of a variety of diseases including:
neurological diseases, and
cutaneous wound healing.
In comparison with their donor cells, MSC-derived exosomes offer more stable entities and diminished safety risks regarding the administration of live cells, e.g. microvasculature occlusion risk.
This review discusses the exosome isolation methods invented and utilized in the clinical setting thus far and presents a summary of current information on MSC exosomes in translational medicine.
Link to 207 research papers that cited this one (above)
TITLE: The role of the paracrine/autocrine mediator endothelin-1 in regulation of cardiac contractility and growth
Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a critical autocrine and paracrine regulator of cardiac physiology and pathology. Produced locally within the myocardium in response to diverse mechanical and neurohormonal stimuli, ET-1 acutely modulates cardiac contractility. During pathological cardiovascular conditions such as ischaemia, left ventricular hypertrophy and heart failure, myocyte expression and activity of the entire ET-1 system is enhanced, allowing the peptide to both initiate and maintain maladaptive cellular responses. Both the acute and chronic effects of ET-1 are dependent on the activation of intracellular signalling pathways, regulated by the inositol-trisphosphate and diacylglycerol produced upon activation of the ETA receptor. Subsequent stimulation of protein kinases C and D, calmodulin-dependent kinase II, calcineurin and MAPKs modifies the systolic calcium transient, myofibril function and the activity of transcription factors that coordinate cellular remodelling. The precise nature of the cellular response to ET-1 is governed by the timing, localization and context of such signals, allowing the peptide to regulate both cardiomyocyte physiology and instigate disease.
TITLE: Regener-Eyes® Ophthalmic Solution: A New Therapeutic Agent to Relieve Dryness of the Eye for Tear Hyperosmolarity-Induced Pathological Changes in the Eyes of Patients Suffering From Dry Eye Discomfort
Tear hyperosmolarity is an initial and crucial step in the development, progression and aggravation of dry eye discomfort. Decreased tear secretion or altered tear composition leads to tear film instability/imbalance which in Dry Eye (DE) patients results in abnormally rapid breakup of the tear film after blinking. Numerous structural changes in epithelial cells and mucin-producing goblet cells develop as a consequence of exposition of these cells to the hyperosmolar tears.
Tear hyperosmolarity causes oxidative stress, disruption of DNA repair system and induces DNA damage in the cells of ocular surface and lacrimal system, leading to their apoptosis. An injury of lacrimal glands results in decreased tear secretion, enabling the creation of “positive loop” that leads to the DE progression and aggravation. Accordingly, eye drops, which alleviate tear hyperosmolarity and restore tear homeostasis at corneal
surface, will break up vicious DEcycle and will relieve eye pain, irritation, discomfort, and vision disturbance in DE patients. RegenerEyes® Ophthalmic Solution is a hypotonic solution enriched with osmoprotectants (that address the hyperosmolarity of a tear film), which helps support tear stability and contribute to relieve dryness of the eye in DE patients. In this article, we summarized current knowledge and future perspectives about topical administration of Regener-Eyes® Ophthalmic Solution to relieve dryness of the eye in DE patients.
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