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Phosphorus - Key to Cellular Repair - 2

I've discussed cellular repair in numerous blogs, but not directly. The key to cellular repair is the usual suspects:


In the next blog, I will reproduce an article by the world expert on lipids and lipoproteins by

 

Phospholipids are ubiquitous molecules that participate in innumerous cellular events. Phospholipids' biochemical and physiological properties are largely related to their amphipathic (polar and non-polar) feature. Mammalian cell membranes contain more than 1000 different phospholipids.


Phospholipids exert structural functions in cellular membranes, which vary in phospholipid composition according to cell and organelle functions. Phospholipid regulatory functions are both direct and indirect through their metabolites.


It is well established that phospholipids participate in a broad range of cellular events such as apoptosis and regulation of mitochondrial physiology and that phospholipid-derived messenger molecules are crucial for transducing extracellular signals to intracellular events.


The first phospholipid to be discovered was phosphatidylcholine. It was originally named lecithin after the Greek lekithos, which means egg yolk. The concept of phospholipids as mere structural and metabolic inert molecules associated with methological difficulties delayed the interest in these compounds until the 1950s, when elucidation on the biosynthetic pathway of phospholipids began to be published.


Today, the metabolic and physiological roles of phospholipids are an active and exciting area of research.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/B012227055X009172


 

All foods that originate from living plants/animals contain phospholipids. This is because all living plants/animals have cells, and phospholipids are integral components of cell membranes.

The major animal-based sources of phospholipids include

eggs,

  • milks,

  • meats

  • and

  • marine phospholipids.

Eggs of chicken, duck and turkey all contain considerable amounts of phospholipids. Egg yolks are especially rich sources of phospholipids, with a weight per cent up to 10%, the majority of the phospholipids being PC (66%) and PE (19%).27


Egg yolks are a common source of non-vegan food-grade lecithin. Raw meats contain large amounts of biological membranes and thus generally contain 0.5–1% phospholipids.


In addition to muscle foods, animal organs contain even higher amounts of phospholipids. For example, pig and chicken kidneys contain 2.9 and 2.5% phospholipids, respectively.27


Seafood has similar phospholipid concentrations as warm-blooded animals, but marine phospholipids are much higher in omega-3 fatty acids (Table 1), which makes them a promising functional ingredient in foods.6


Krill oil is a unique source of marine phospholipids that originate from small marine crustaceans. Krill oil is high in phospholipids and thus is used in highly bioavailable omega-3 supplements.28


Vegetable seeds and cereal grains are also rich sources of phospholipids. These include soybean, corn, cottonseed, rapeseed, sunflower, peanut and oats, with commercial lecithin being obtained from some of these sources during oil refining (see below).


In addition, phospholipids are present in some vegetable-, fruit- and carbohydrate-related food products such as spinach, juices, and wheat starch.


 


 

Previous Blog

Cell membranes are composed of phospholipid bilayers. They are also composed of cholesterol. I have written about the need for cholesterol and the consequences of statin drugs ad nauseam.


Now it is time to discuss the phospholipid bilayer membrane and what supports it. Forming this bilayer continuously is critical to repair and recovery. If you bruise easily or heal slowly, it may be an issue with forming and reforming the cellular membrane.


Why is reforming cell membranes so important? Aren't they like the walls in your home? Once they are formed, they don't need a lot of maintenance, right?


 

What is the structure of cellular membranes?


You don't have to read every word, but look at the images to understand how important phospholipids and phosphorus is to human health.


The Khan Academy is a great resource on medical in scientific information. Here is their overview on cellular membranes.


The purpose of the cell membrane is to hold the cell's different components together and protect it from the environment outside the cell. The cell membrane also regulates what enters and exits the cell so that it doesn’t lose too many nutrients or take in too many ions. It also does a pretty good job of keeping harmful things out.






What’s it made up of?

The cell membrane is primarily made up of three things:

1. Phospholipids

2. Cholesterol

3. Proteins





1) Phospholipids


There are two important parts of a phospholipid: the head and the two tails. The head is a phosphate molecule that is attracted to water (hydrophilic). The two tails are made up of fatty acids (chains of carbon atoms) that aren’t compatible with, or repel, water (hydrophobic). The cell membrane is exposed to water mixed with electrolytes and other materials on the outside and the inside of the cell. When cellular membranes form, phospholipids assemble into two layers because of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties. The phosphate heads in each layer face the aqueous or watery environment on either side, and the tails hide away from the water between the layers of heads, because they are hydrophobic. Biologists call this neat assembling characteristic “self-assembly”.


2) Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a type of steroid which is helpful in regulating molecules entering and exiting the cell. We’ll talk about this in more depth later, but for now remember it’s part of the cell membrane.


3) Proteins

The cell is made up of two different types, or “classes”, of proteins. Integral proteins are nestled into the phospholipid bilayer and stick out on either end. Integral proteins are helpful for transporting larger molecules, like glucose, across the cell membrane. They have regions, called “polar” and “nonpolar” regions, that correspond with the polarity of the phospholipid bilayer.


Polar and nonpolar refer to the concentration of electrons on a molecule. Polar means the electrons are not evenly distributed, making one side of the molecule more positively charged or negatively charged than another side. Nonpolar means the electrons are evenly distributed, so the molecule is evenly charged across the surface.

The other class of protein is called peripheral proteins, which don’t extend across the membrane. They can be attached to the ends of integral proteins, or not, and help with transport or communication.


What makes the cell membrane fluid?

The fluid mosaic model of the cell membrane is how scientists describe what the cell membrane looks and functions like, because it is made up of a bunch of different molecules that are distributed across the membrane. If you were to zoom in on the cell membrane, you would see a pattern of different types of molecules put together, also known as a mosaic. These molecules are constantly moving in two dimensions, in a fluid fashion, similar to icebergs floating in the ocean. The movement of the mosaic of molecules makes it impossible to form a completely impenetrable barrier.

There are 3 main factors that influence cell membrane fluidity:


  1. Temperature: The temperature will affect how the phospholipids move and how close together they are found. When it’s cold they are found closer together and when it’s hot they move farther apart.

  2. Cholesterol: The cholesterol molecules are randomly distributed across the phospholipid bilayer, helping the bilayer stay fluid in different environmental conditions. The cholesterol holds the phospholipids together so that they don’t separate too far, letting unwanted substances in, or compact too tightly, restricting movement across the membrane. Without cholesterol, the phospholipids in your cells will start to get closer together when exposed to cold, making it more difficult for small molecules, like gases to squeeze in between the phospholipids like they normally do. Without cholesterol, the phospholipids start to separate from each other, leaving large gaps

3.Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids: Fatty acids are what make up the phospholipid tails. Saturated fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms that have only single bonds between them. As a result, the chains are straight and easy to pack tightly. Unsaturated fats are chains of carbon atoms that have double bonds between some of the carbons. The double bonds create kinks in the chains, making it harder for the chains to pack tightly.


These kinks play a role in membrane fluidity because they increase the space between the phospholipids, making the molecules harder to freeze at lower temperatures. In addition, the increased space allows certain small molecules, such as CO  and O , to cross the membrane quickly and easily.


What can go through the cell membrane?

Phospholipids are attracted to each other, but they are also constantly in motion and bounce around a little off of each other. The spaces created by the membrane’s fluidity are incredibly small, so it is still an effective barrier. For this reason, and the ability of proteins to help with transport across the membrane, cell membranes are called semi-permeable.


There are 5 broad categories of molecules found in the cellular environment. Some of these molecules can cross the membrane and some of them need the help of other molecules or processes. One way of distinguishing between these categories of molecules is based on how they react with water. Molecules that are hydrophilic (water loving) are capable of forming bonds with water and other hydrophilic molecules. They are called polar molecules. The opposite can be said for molecules that are hydrophobic (water fearing), they are called nonpolar molecules. Here are the 5 types:

  1. Small, nonpolar molecules (e.g. oxygen and carbon dioxide): These molecules can pass through the lipid bilayer and do so by squeezing through the phospholipid bilayers. They don't need proteins for transport and can diffuse across quickly.

  2. Small, polar molecules (e.g. water): These molecules can also pass through the lipid bilayer without the help of proteins, but they do so with a little more difficulty than the molecule type above. Recall that the interior of the phospholipid bilayer is made up of the hydrophobic tails. So, it's not easy for water molecules to cross, and it is a somewhat slower process.

  3. Large, nonpolar molecules (e.g. carbon rings): These rings can pass through but it is also a slow process.

  4. Large, polar molecules (e.g. simple sugar - glucose): The size and charge of large polar molecules make it too difficult to pass through the nonpolar region of the phospholipid membrane without help from transport proteins.

  5. Ions (e.g.  ): Similarly, the charge of an ion makes it too difficult to pass through the nonpolar region of the phospholipid membrane without help from transport proteins.


Consider the following:

What happens when there is a problem with the cell membrane’s ability to uptake/export important molecules or communicate? There are many diseases associated with problems in the ability of the phospholipid bilayer to perform these functions. One of these is Alzheimer’s disease, characterized by brain shrinkage and memory loss. One idea explaining why Alzheimer’s disease occurs is the forming of plaque sticking to the phospholipid bilayer of the brain neurons. These plaques block communication between the brain neurons, eventually leading to neuron death and in turn causing the symptoms of Alzheimer’s, such as poor short-term memory.













 

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