Viral Protocol from IFM



The IFM has a substantial list of supplements that have anti-viral properties. Here is the link:

https://www.ifm.org/news-insights/functional-medicine-approach-covid-19-additional-research-nutraceuticals-botanicals/


I have reproduced some of the information here. Omitted are any suggestions that are not vetted with what I consider adequate research. I also added olive leaf extract at the bottom of the IFM list.


To view Dr. Carter's supplement recommendations, please go here...


https://www.healthrevivalpartners.com/post/dr-carter-on-supplements

 

Background and Introduction

Health professionals and the public must be well informed about the SARS-CoV-2 virus, the disease it causes (COVID-19), and how it spreads. This information is readily available and not within the scope of this document. At this time, there are no specific vaccines or uniformly successful treatments for COVID-19. In this context of insufficient evidence, the scope of this document will be to assess the scientific plausibility of promising prevention approaches and therapeutic (nutraceutical and botanical) interventions and then to offer clinical recommendations. This article is part one of a series. Click here to view part two.


With respect to interventions, the practice of Functional Medicine emphasizes the primacy of safety, validity, and effectiveness. In the novel context of COVID-19, validity in the form of published evidence is lacking. Therefore, “validity” relies upon inferences from the mechanisms of action of individual agents and/or published outcomes data supporting their mitigating effects on illness from other viral strains. Likewise, data for the “effectiveness” of interventions targeting the viral mechanisms of COVID-19 are nascent and rapidly emerging. In this context, the following recommendations represent the Functional Medicine approach to the COVID-19 crisis:

  • Adherence to all health recommendations from official sources to decrease viral transmission.

  • Optimizing modifiable lifestyle factors in order to improve overall immune function (an introductory document on boosting immunity is available here). This should reduce progression from colonization to illness.

  • Personalized consideration of therapeutic agents that may:

  • Favorably modulate cellular defense and repair mechanisms.

  • Favorably modulate viral-induced pathological cellular processes.

  • Promote viral eradication or inactivation.

  • Mitigate collateral damage from other therapeutic agents.

  • Promote resolution of collateral damage and restoration of function.

  • Treatment of confirmed COVID-19 illness (as per conventional standards and practice):

  • May reduce the severity and duration of acute symptoms and complications.

  • May support recovery and reduce long-term morbidity and sequelae


Note: All supplements are available through Fullscript

 

MUSHROOMS

Various mushrooms species have been shown to possess broad immunomodulatory effects. They possess multiple mechanisms of action, including increasing the number of circulating B cells,5 increasing gut immunity,20 stimulating host immunity,21 activating innate immune cells,22 and increasing cytotoxic activity of NK cells.23


 

BERBERINE

Berberine is an alkaloid that is found in the roots, rhizomes, and stem bark of various plants, including goldenseal, goldthread, and Oregon grape. Berberine has been shown to have anti-viral activity across a broad range of viral targets.90-95 Berberine also activates 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), 96,97 which is directly anti-inflammatory. Berberine’s anti-inflammatory effects also include suppression of inhibition of IkB kinase and downregulation of NFkB, IL-1alpha, and TNF-alpha.98 Berberine also acts to lower blood glucose,99 thus helping with furin inhibition, as well as preserving ACE2 receptors, possibly through aldose reductase inhibition.


 

MELATONIN

Melatonin has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the NLRP3 inflammasome.138 This has not gone unnoticed by the COVID-19 research community, with two recent published papers proposing the use of melatonin as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of patients with COVID-19.139,140


 

QUERCETIN

Quercetin has been shown to have antiviral effects against both RNA (e.g., influenza and coronavirus) and DNA viruses (e.g., herpesvirus). Quercetin has a pleiotropic role as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, modulating signaling pathways that are associated with post-transcriptional modulators affecting post-viral healing.94


 

VITAMIN D

Activated vitamin D,1,25(OH) D, a steroid hormone, is an immune system modulator that reduces the expression of inflammatory cytokines and increases macrophage function. Vitamin D also stimulates the expression of potent antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which exist in neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells, and epithelial cells of the respiratory tract.31 Vitamin D increases anti-pathogen peptides through defensins and has a dual effect due to suppressing superinfection. Evidence suggests vitamin D supplementation may prevent upper respiratory infections.32 However, there is some controversy as to whether it should be used and the laboratory value that should be achieved. Research suggests that concerns about vitamin D (increased IL-1beta in cell culture) are not seen clinically. The guidance we suggest is that a laboratory range of >50 and < 80ng/mL serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D may help to mitigate morbidity from COVID-19 infection.

 

ZINC

Zinc contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. There is also evidence that it suppresses viral attachment and replication. Zinc deficiency is common, especially in those populations most at risk for severe COVID-19 infections, and is challenging to accurately diagnosis with laboratory measures. Supplementation with zinc is supported by evidence that it both prevents viral infections and reduces their severity and duration. Moreover, it has been shown to reduce the risk of lower respiratory infection, which may be of particular significance in the context of COVID-19.

 

VITAMIN A - Best from Cod Liver Oil

Vitamin A is a micronutrient that is crucial for maintaining vision, promoting growth and development, and protecting epithelium and mucus integrity in the body. Vitamin A is known as an anti-inflammation vitamin because of its critical role in enhancing immune function. Vitamin A is involved in the development of the immune system and plays regulatory roles in cellular immune responses and humoral immune processes through the modulation of T helper cells, sIgA, and cytokine production. Vitamin A has demonstrated a therapeutic effect in the treatment of various infectious diseases.64


 

VITAMIN C

Vitamin C contributes to immune defense by supporting various cellular functions of both the innate and adaptive immune system. Vitamin C accumulates in phagocytic cells, such as neutrophils, and can enhance chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of reactive oxygen species, and ultimately microbial killing. Supplementation with vitamin C appears to be able to both prevent and treat respiratory and systemic infections.78 Vitamin C has been used in hospital ICUs to treat COVID-19 infection.


 

Not on the IFM list:

Olive Leaf Extract

Olive leaf extract is a supplement that is derived from the olive leaf, which contains bioactive compounds that has many researched health benefits. The extract contains a wide variety of compounds which work synergistically to deliver therapeutic actions. ([i],[ii])

https://olivewellnessinstitute.org/olive-leaf/olive-leaf-extract/


In vitro and animal studies show that olive leaf extract has some potential activity against the influenza virus ([iii]) Research suggests that olive leaf extract may reduce the infectivity and inhibit the replication of viruses that cause colds, influenza and lower respiratory tract infections.


Olive leaf extract has been shown to stimulate phagocytosis - the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes – which may enhance the body’s response to a viral infection. Gargling olive leaf tea may alleviate symptoms of a sore throat – potentially due to a reduction of inflammation and viral infectivity.


Importantly, an olive leaf extract study on upper respiratory illness showed a 28% reduction in sick days. ([iv]) Severe viral infections like the common Flu and CoVid 19 cause illness and death through the respiratory pathway.


Olive Leaf Extract safety, dosage, and side effects: Regulatory bodies across the globe have published olive leaf extract monographs that discuss safety and tolerability of the product. ([v],[vi])


For general use: Traditionally, olive leaf extract was used over a period of 2 – 4 weeks.

For use as a diuretic: Occasional use is recommended, as required for symptom relief.

It is always important to note, that if symptoms persist for longer then one week during the use of the product, a qualified healthcare professional should be consulted.


No serious adverse effects have been reported in clinical studies involving olive leaf extract. Allergic reactions are possible in people who have an allergy to plants of the Oleaceae family. Some reports of rhinitis or bronchial asthma have been reported (frequency is unknown).


Here are videos explaining Olives and Olive Leaf: https://youtu.be/abIR3sVKtVk, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i2zZ7mpsZ0Q


Here is information on Oliverex from Biocidin, with their recommended dosing suggestion:



[i] Barbara B, Toietta G, Maggio R, et al. Effects of olive-derived oleuropein on human health. Int J Mol Sci. 2014;15(10):18508–24. [ii] Vogel P, Machado I, Garavaglia J, et al. Polyphenol benefits of olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) to human health. Nutr Hosp. 2015;31(3):1427–33. [iii] Roxas M. Jurenka J. Colds and Influenza: A review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical and nutritional considerations. Alt Med Rev. 2007.2(1):25-48. [iv] Somerville V, Moore R, Braakhuis A. The Effect of Olive Leaf Extract on Upper Respiratory Illness in High School Athletes: A Randomised Control Trial. Nutrients. 2019;11(2):358. Published 2019 Feb 9. doi:10.3390/nu11020358 [v] Perrinjaquet-Moccetti T, Schmidlin C, et al. Food supplementation with an olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract reduces blood pressure in borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. Phytother Res. 2008 Sep;22(9):1239-42. [vi] Susalit E, Agus N, Tjandrawinata R, et al. Olive (Olea europaea) leaf extract effective in patients with stage-1 hypertension: comparison with captopril. Phytomedicine. 2011 Feb 15;18(4):251-8.


 

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Antiviral activity of quercetin-3-?-O-D-glucoside against Zika virus infection. Virol Sin. 2017;32(6):545-547. doi:10.1007/s12250-017-4057-9 101) T?zsér J, Benk? S. Natural compounds as regulators of NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated IL-1? production. Mediators Inflamm. 2016;2016:5460302. doi:10.1155/2016/5460302 102) Yi YS. Regulatory roles of flavonoids on inflammasome activation during inflammatory responses. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(13):e1800147. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201800147 103) Nieman DC, Henson DA, Gross SJ, et al. Quercetin reduces illness but not immune perturbations after intensive exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(9):1561-1569. doi:10.1249/mss.0b013e318076b566 104) Andres S, Pevny S, Ziegenhagen R, et al. Safety aspects of the use of quercetin as a dietary supplement. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(1). doi:10.1002/mnfr.201700447 105) O?arowski M, Miko?ajczak P?, Kujawski R, et al. Pharmacological effect of quercetin in hypertension and its potential application in pregnancy-induced hypertension: review of in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2018;2018:7421489. doi:10.1155/2018/7421489 106) Shoskes DA, Zeitlin SI, Shahed A, Rajfer J. Quercetin in men with category III chronic prostatitis: a preliminary prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Urology. 1999;54(6):960-963. doi:10.1016/s0090-4295(99)00358-1 107) Andres S, Pevny S, Ziegenhagen R, et al. Safety aspects of the use of quercetin as a dietary supplement. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2018;62(1). doi:10.1002/mnfr.201700447 108) Adem S, Eyupoglu V, Sarfraz I, Rasul A, Ali M. Identification of potent COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) inhibitors from natural polyphenols: an in silico strategy unveils a hope against CORONA. Preprints. 2020;2020030333. doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0333.v1 109) Matsumoto K, Yamada H, Takuma N, Niino H, Sagesaka YM. Effects of green tea catechins and theanine on preventing influenza infection among healthcare workers: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2011;11:15. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-15 110) Lee HE, Yang G, Park YB, et al. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate prevents acute gout by suppressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitochondrial DNA synthesis. Molecules. 2019;24(11):2138. doi:10.3390/molecules24112138 111) Furushima D, Nishimura T, Takuma N, et al. Prevention of acute upper respiratory infections by consumption of catechins in healthcare workers: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrients. 2019;12(1):4. doi:10.3390/nu12010004 112) Mereles D, Hunstein W. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for clinical trials: more pitfalls than promises? Int J Mol Sci. 2011;12(9):5592-5603. doi:10.3390/ijms12095592 113) Chow HH, Cai Y, Hakim IA, et al. Pharmacokinetics and safety of green tea polyphenols after multiple-dose administration of epigallocatechin gallate and polyphenon E in healthy individuals. Clin Cancer Res. 2003;9(9):3312-3319. 114) Isomura T, Suzuki S, Origasa H, et al. Liver-related safety assessment of green tea extracts in humans: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials [published correction appears in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(11):1221-1229]. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(11):1340. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.78 115) Sarma DN, Barrett ML, Chavez ML, et al. Safety of green tea extracts: a systematic review by the US Pharmacopeia. Drug Saf. 2008;31(6):469-484. doi:10.2165/00002018-200831060-00003 116) Oketch-Rabah HA, Roe AL, Rider CV, et al. United States Pharmacopeia (USP) comprehensive review of the hepatotoxicity of green tea extracts. Toxicol Rep. 2020;7:386-402. doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2020.02.008 117) Younes M, Aggett P, Aguilar F, et al. Scientific opinion on the safety of green tea catechins. EFSA J. 2018;16(4):e05239. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2018.5239 118) Isomura T, Suzuki S, Origasa H, et al. Liver-related safety assessment of green tea extracts in humans: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials [published correction appears in Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(11):1340]. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016;70(11):1221-1229. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2016.78 119) Dostal AM, Samavat H, Bedell S, et al. The safety of green tea extract supplementation in postmenopausal women at risk for breast cancer: results of the Minnesota Green Tea Trial. Food Chem Toxicol. 2015;83:26-35. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2015.05.019 120) Chen IJ, Liu CY, Chiu JP, Hsu CH. Therapeutic effect of high-dose green tea extract on weight reduction: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Clin Nutr. 2016;35(3):592-599. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2015.05.003 121) Yates AA, Erdman JW Jr, Shao A, Dolan LC, Griffiths JC. Bioactive nutrients – time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;84:94-101. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.01.002 122) Menegazzi M, Campagnari R, Bertoldi M, Crupi R, Di Paola R, Cuzzocrea S. Protective effect of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in diseases with uncontrolled immune activation: could such a scenario be helpful to counteract COVID-19?. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(14):5171. doi:10.3390/ijms21145171 123) Hu J, Webster D, Cao J, Shao A. The safety of green tea and green tea extract consumption in adults – results of a systematic review. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2018;95:412-433. doi:10.1016/j.yrtph.2018.03.019 124) Khaerunnisa S, Kurniawan H, Awaluddin R, Suhartati S, Soetjipto S. Potential inhibitor of COVID-19 main protease (Mpro) from several medicinal plant compounds by molecular docking study. Preprints. 2020, 2020030226. doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0226.v1 125) Sun Y, Liu W, Zhang H, et al. Curcumin prevents osteoarthritis by inhibiting the activation of inflammasome NLRP3. 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The use of curcumin as a complementary therapy in ulcerative colitis: a systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. Nutrients. 2020;12(8):2296. doi:10.3390/nu12082296 136) Cheng AL, Hsu CH, Lin JK, et al. Phase I clinical trial of curcumin, a chemopreventive agent, in patients with high-risk or pre-malignant lesions. Anticancer Res. 2001;21(4B):2895-2900. 137) Amalraj A, Varma K, Jacob J, et al. A novel highly bioavailable curcumin formulation improves symptoms and diagnostic indicators in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-dose, three-arm, and parallel-group study. J Med Food. 2017;20(10):1022-1030. doi:10.1089/jmf.2017.3930 138) Favero G, Franceschetti L, Bonomini F, Rodella LF, Rezzani R. Melatonin as an anti-inflammatory agent modulating inflammasome activation. Int J Endocrinol. 2017;2017:1835195. doi:10.1155/2017/1835195 139) Zhou Y, Hou Y, Shen J, Huang Y, Martin W, Cheng F. Network-based drug repurposing for novel coronavirus 2019-nCoV/SARS-CoV-2. Cell Discov. 2020;6:14. doi:10.1038/s41421-020-0153-3 140) Zhang R, Wang X, Ni L, et al. COVID-19: melatonin as a potential adjuvant treatment. Life Sci. 2020;250:117583. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117583 141) Foley HM, Steel AE. Adverse events associated with oral administration of melatonin: a critical systematic review of clinical evidence. Complement Ther Med. 2019;42:65-81. doi:10.1016/j.ctim.2018.11.003 142) Andersen LP, Gögenur I, Rosenberg J, Reiter RJ. The safety of melatonin in humans. Clin Drug Investig. 2016;36(3):169-175. doi:10.1007/s40261-015-0368-5 143) Herxheimer A, Petrie KJ. Melatonin for the prevention and treatment of jet lag. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;2:CD001520. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001520 144) Leite Pacheco R, de Oliveira Cruz Latorraca C, Adriano Leal Freitas da Costa A, Luiza Cabrera Martimbianco A, Vianna Pachito D, Riera R. 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Look below to find the times and links to our weekly webinars....


What is the Chronic Disease Support program?

1. It is a weekly live, interactive, 1h, webinar on Zoom covering important health-related topics.

2. The schedule is Mondays at 12 noon EST and Tuesday at 8 pm EST. The topic is the same at both times/dates. We offer 2 times per week to accommodate schedules.


Monday Zoom link (noon EST):

https://zoom.us/j/99724146059?pwd=ZWNYSTc1OVo1OU5uLy81MzJ6UkVsQT09


Tuesday Zoom link (8pm EST):

https://zoom.us/j/92478455665?pwd=Qzg5U1Y0VkVWazVwMmVqZVhZMlhrdz09


copy and paste to your browser at the designed time to join.


Archived videos are found at https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCd_LYVg22017AkE1GfKa4_A


 

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